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Frequently Asked Questions for TclPro

This page lists the Frequently Asked Questions for TclPro. If you have a question that is not addressed on this page, please check the known bugs list. These pages are pertinent to the old Scriptics' TclPro and only apply in part to ActiveState TclPro .

FAQ Index

  • 1. TclPro
  • 1.1. What platforms does TclPro support?
  • 1.2. When installing TclPro on a Windows 95 PC, I receive a message that CTL3D32.DLL is the wrong version and that the product only works on Windows NT.
  • 1.3. How do I use the bundled extensions with protclsh or prowish?
  • 1.4. My configure scripts look for tclConfig.sh, tkConfig.sh, itclConfig.sh, itkConfig.sh and tclXConfig.sh. Where can I find them in the TclPro distribution directory?
  • 1.5. How do I use the debug builds on windows with TclPro1.4? VC++ can't load symbols from them.
  • 1.6. When I link with the tcl83.lib import library using VC++ 5.0, I get an error.
  • 2. Upgrading TclPro
  • 2.1. How can I upgrade TclPro on Windows?
  • 2.2. How can I upgrade TclPro on Unix?
  • 3. TclPro License Key
  • 3.1. When entering an evaluation license key for TclPro, I get the "invalid key" error message. Do I need to get a new key?
  • 4. Scriptics License Server
  • 4.1. How can I change the Scriptics License Server host and port for a site installation?
  • 4.2. Received the following error when trying to connect to the License Server via the web browser: error while autoloading "Auth_Check": couldn't read file "tclhttpd/lib/auth.tbc": no such file or directory
  • 5. TclPro Debugger
  • 5.1. Can I use TclPro Debugger to debug a Tcl 7.3 application?
  • 5.2. TclPro Debugger doesn't appear to understand Tk commands.
  • 5.3. Can I use TclPro Debugger to debug Tcl applications that use Tcl extensions?
  • 5.4. Can my application redefine the "source" command?
  • 5.5. How can I change the default project settings?
  • 5.6. How do I delete projects?
  • 5.7. How can I get TclPro Debugger to instrument my script and stop at the first line of the script in the code window?
  • 5.8. TclPro Debugger lets me put a breakpoint on comment lines, empty lines and curly-brace lines but ignores them.
  • 5.9. How can I force a breakpoint to occur as a result of pressing a button on my Tk GUI?
  • 5.10. A breakpoint that is set on a procedure definition only stops when the procedure is defined. How do I set a breakpoint on a procedure invocation?
  • 5.11. Does TclPro Debugger support debugging of multiple interps?
  • 5.12. Does TclPro Debugger support debugging a multi-threaded application?
  • 5.13. My Tk application's window doesn't appear until all the code is executed. How can I watch incremental progress?
  • 5.14. I can see only built-in commands in the procedure window. How can I view the procedures that my application defines?
  • 5.15. Why is the Procedure Window empty?
  • 5.16. Why does the code display say "No source code available"?
  • 5.17. How can I get balloon help for the buttons in the tool bar?
  • 5.18. How do I debug an embedded or remotely running application?
  • 5.19. I have set up my scripts for remote debugging. Does this affect the execution of my script if TclPro Debugger is not present?
  • 5.20. Windows only: How can I keep the stdout console from disappearing after the script exits?
  • 5.21. How can I change the value of a variable while the application is running?
  • 5.22. Why is the Eval Console grayed out?
  • 5.23. Why can't I abbreviate commands or use the "ls" and "history" commands in the Eval Console?
  • 5.24. Will running my application in the debugger alter its behavior as compared to running my application independently?
  • 5.25. If I run a script in TclPro Debugger, where do the stdout and stderr go?
  • 5.26. I am debugging an application that includes bytecode files but I don't want TclPro Debugger to instrument these files. What can I do?
  • 5.27. Can I use my custom interpreter with TclPro Debugger?
  • 5.28. My application runs very slowly inside TclPro Debugger. What can I do to improve the speed?
  • 6. TclPro Checker
  • 6.1. Can I use TclPro Checker to check Tcl 7.3 scripts?
  • 6.2. Can I use TclPro Checker to check Tcl code that uses Tcl extensions?
  • 6.3. Does TclPro Checker check for wrong number of arguments for user-defined procs?
  • 6.4. Does TclPro Checker check for use of undefined variables?
  • 6.5. Does TclPro Checker check for variables that are written to but never read or procedures that are defined but never called?
  • 6.6. Does TclPro Checker give warnings for Y2K violations?
  • 6.7. What does it mean when I get the message, "(warnExpr) use curly braces to avoid double substitution"?
  • 7. TclPro Compiler
  • 7.1. In which Tcl interpreters can I run my compiled (*.tbc) Tcl files?
  • 7.2. Can Tcl files compiled by TclPro Compiler be sourced cross-platform?
  • 7.3. How can I source both the .tcl and .tbc file in my wrapped application?
  • 7.4. Can I create a tclIndex file from the .tbc files?
  • 7.5. Can I create a pkgIndex file from the .tbc files?
  • 7.6. When I run my compiled Tcl script, I get the error "The TclPro ByteCode Loader is not available"
  • 7.7. When I compile a Tcl script, are any of the comments still visible in the compiled file?
  • 7.8. When I compile a Tcl script, what code is hidden?
  • 7.9. When I run my compiled Tcl script, I get the error "called a copy of a compiled script". What is causing this error?
  • 8. Tcl Wrapper
  • 8.1. How do I use the bundled extensions in my wrapped application?
  • 8.2. Can I use TclPro Wrapper with unsupported extensions?
  • 8.3. Can I create a stand-alone executable for a Tk 4.2 application?
  • 8.4. Can wrapped applications run cross-platform?
  • 8.5. Can I wrap a Tcl application that runs in a custom Tcl interpreter?
  • 8.6. Can I wrap dynamically loadable (DLL, .so or .sl) files?
  • 8.7. My application requires dynamically loadable (DLL, .so or .sl) files. Can I use TclPro Wrapper to wrap my application?
  • 8.8. Can end-users see the files in a wrapped application?
  • 8.9. I want to wrap an application that reads and writes to a file. When I include this file in my wrapped application, my application would hang.
  • 8.10. My application uses the Opt package provided in the TclPro/lib/tcl8.0 directory. Why is this package not automatically included when I wrap my application?
  • 8.11. Can I use the Windows library files provided by TclPro with a Borland compiler?
  • 9. [incr Tcl] 3.0
  • 9.1. How can I use [incr Tcl], [incr Tk], and [incr Widgets] with protclsh80 or prowish80?
  • 10. Expect 5.29
  • 10.1. Is Expect supported on Windows?
  • 1. TclPro

    1.1. What platforms does TclPro support?
    TclPro 1.4.1 is currently available on the following platforms:
    • Windows 95, 98, NT 4.0 (Intel), 2000
    • Solaris 2.5, 2.6, 7 (SPARC)
    • HP-UX 10.20
    • Linux (Intel, Red Hat 5.0+, SuSE 6.0+)
    • SGI IRIX 6.3+
    Note: The Linux distribution is for the Intel platform and the glibc2 C library.

    ActiveState TclPro supports:

    • Windows 98, ME, NT4, 2000, XP
    • Solaris 2.6+
    • Linux (kernel 2.2+ x86 and 2.4+ IA-64)
    • HP-UX 11 (PA-RISC and IA-64)

    1.2. When installing TclPro on a Windows 95 PC, I receive a message that CTL3D32.DLL is the wrong version and that the product only works on Windows NT.
    This message indicates that the version of CTL3D32.DLL you have is old. You can upgrade the DLL by installing OSR 2/3 or Internet Explorer 4.0. Please note that this message does not affect the installation or functionality of TclPro. You can click OK and complete the installation.

    1.3. How do I use the bundled extensions with protclsh or prowish?
    The bundled extenstions are provided as packages. This allows you to load only the packages you want to work with. Your protclsh80 or prowish80 application must execute the "package require" command to load each package individually.
    	package require Itcl
    	package require Itk
    	package require Iwidgets
    	package require Expect
    	package require Tclx
    

    1.4. My configure scripts look for tclConfig.sh, tkConfig.sh, itclConfig.sh, itkConfig.sh and tclXConfig.sh. Where can I find them in the TclPro distribution directory?
    These files are not distributed with TclPro. However, if you install the source code for Tcl/Tk and bundled extensions from the TclPro CD ROM, you can generate these files by running configure in the appropriate directories. The source code is installed into the TclPro<version>/src directory.

    1.5. How do I use the debug builds on windows with TclPro1.4? VC++ can't load symbols from them.
    Due to a small error we made building the software, symbols were stored not in the executable, but in a "program database" file what wasn't included. Basically, our debug builds are worthless as they are pointing to the missing files and will require the user to rebuild of the core and components from scratch to step-debug through the sources.

    1.6. When I link with the tcl83.lib import library using VC++ 5.0, I get an error.
    Your linker needs upgrading with a service pack to understand the VC++ v 6.0 compressed format that was used to create this product. See Visual Studio 97 Service Packs.

    2. Upgrading TclPro

    2.1. How can I upgrade TclPro on Windows?
    When upgrading from a prior version of TclPro, you should install the new version and run the new TclPro Debugger before uninstalling the prior version. Doing so ensures that your license and TclPro Debugger preferences are carried over from the prior TclPro version.

    We recommend that you use the Wise uninstaller to uninstall a prior TclPro version. You can do so by selecting the following in your Start menu:

    Settings | Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs
    
    Select the TclPro version you are uninstalling, and press "Add/Remove".

    You then need to remove references to previous installations of TclPro from your PATH environment variable, so the current executables are not be overshadowed by previously installed ones. To edit your PATH on Windows NT, select the following in your Start menu:

    Settings | Control Panel | System | Environment 
    Scroll to the Path variable and double click on it. For Windows 95, edit the PATH in the C:\autoexec.bat file.

    If you are using Windows 95, you should reboot your machine once you have finished the upgrade.

    2.2. How can I upgrade TclPro on Unix?
    When upgrading from a prior version of TclPro, we recommend that you install the new version before uninstalling the prior version. Once you have successfully installed the new version of TclPro, you can uninstall a prior version by recursively removing the target directory of the installation as follows:
    /usr/bin/rm -rf /opt/scriptics/TclPro1.0
    
    Remember to update your PATH environment variable to point to the new TclPro version.

    3. TclPro License Key

    3.1. When entering an evaluation license key for TclPro, I get the "invalid key" error message. Do I need to get a new key?
    The "invalid key" error is raised as a result of three conditions:
    1. Entering a Shared Network License into the License field at the 
       end of the installation. By default, a Named User License is 
       issued unless the user explicitly selects Shared Network License 
       during the evaluation download process
    2. Entering an expired key
    3. Using a license for TclPro 1.0 or 1.1 with TclPro 1.2
    
    Shared Network Licenses work in conjunction with Scriptics License Servers. If you made a mistake and receive a Shared Network License, you can request a new Named User License by reregistering for the evaluation and selecting the desired key when prompted. You do not need to download the software again.

    4. Scriptics License Server

    4.1. How can I change the Scriptics License Server host and port for a site installation?
    You can run the License Manager program (prolicense) with the -admin option. This updates the information in the site installation of TclPro.

    4.2. Received the following error when trying to connect to the License Server via the web browser: error while autoloading "Auth_Check": couldn't read file "tclhttpd/lib/auth.tbc": no such file or directory
    This is caused by the fact that the user id specified during the installation process does not have a permission to access the directory where the License Server is installed. Please check to make sure that the user id specified during the installation has the permission on the License Server installation directory and try to connect to the License Server again.

    5. TclPro Debugger

    5.1. Can I use TclPro Debugger to debug a Tcl 7.3 application?
    No. TclPro Debugger works with standard distributions of Tcl and Tk that support the "socket" command, which is available in Tcl Version 7.6 or later. TclPro Debugger uses the "socket" command for communication with the application you are debugging.

    5.2. TclPro Debugger doesn't appear to understand Tk commands.
    RFE ID 523
    If you are experiencing this behavior, check the "Interpreter" entry in your project. You can check this by selecting the "File | Edit Project" menu entry. Be sure you are using a Tk interpreter, such as prowish80.

    Beginning in TclPro 1.1, the default interpreter for a project is prowish80.

    5.3. Can I use TclPro Debugger to debug Tcl applications that use Tcl extensions?
    TclPro Debugger supports debugging Tcl scripts that use the bundled extensions and any extensions that do not rename or redefine any of the following core Tcl commands:
    	append array break catch cd close concat continue 
    
    	eof error eval exit expr fconfigure file fileevent 
    
    	flush for foreach gets global if incr info lappend 
    
    	lindex linsert list llength lrange lreplace lsearch 
    
    	namespace open puts proc pwd read regexp regsub rename 
    
    	return set string switch trace unset uplevel upvar 
    
    	variable vwait while
    
    See the next question for details on extensions that rename the "source" command.

    If none of these commands are renamed or redefined, TclPro Debugger can debug your application. However, please note that if your extension defines new control structures (e.g., procedures that take scripts (to be evaluated) as arguments), the only way to stop the application when the scripts are being evaluated is with variable-breakpoints.

    5.4. Can my application redefine the "source" command?
    If your application renames the "source" command, and then redefines it to call the original version of "source", you can run your application as an "embedded" application, where the code that renames and redefines "source" is sourced before the Debugger is contacted. Your "embedded" application may resemble the following:
    
    # redefine the source command
    rename source source_original
    proc source args {
    	puts "called source"
    	set cmd "source_original $args"
    	eval $cmd
    }
    
    # contact the debugger
    source ${TclProDir}/prodebug.tcl
    if {[debugger_init remoteMachine 5000] == 1} {
    	return "cannot communicate with \\
    	remoteMachine on port 5000"
    }
    debugger_eval {
    # ... your code goes here ...
    }
    
    
    See the "embedded applications" section of the TclPro User's Guide (located in the "doc" directory of your TclPro release) for more details.

    5.5. How can I change the default project settings?
    The default project settings option is activated only if no project is open. If you want to change the default project settings, first close the current project, then select File and Default Project Settings from the menu bar. The changes to the default project settings will apply to future projects you create.

    5.6. How do I delete projects?
    RFE ID 118
    In TclPro 1.0 and 1.1, TclPro Debugger stores up to 8 projects in "most recently used" order. When you create your 9th project, the least recently used one is dropped from the list. Otherwise, there is no way to delete a project.

    Starting in TclPro 1.2, project information is now kept in a file with the .tpj extension. There is one .tpj file for each project. If you want to delete a project, you can delete the file on disk. If you try to bring up the deleted project, TclPro Debugger issues a message indicating that the project file is not found.

    5.7. How can I get TclPro Debugger to instrument my script and stop at the first line of the script in the code window?
    This is the default behavior if you are running TclPro 1.0 or TclPro 1.1. In TclPro 1.2, you can click the 'Step In' button to achieve the same result.

    5.8. TclPro Debugger lets me put a breakpoint on comment lines, empty lines and curly-brace lines but ignores them.
    TclPro Debugger adds a hyphen in the grey bar in the code window to indicate which lines you can set breakpoints on. When you first load your script into TclPro Debugger, the code is not instrumented and you see the hyphen on every line of code. Although you can set a breakpoint on comment lines, empty lines, or curly-brace lines at this point, TclPro Debugger ignores these breakpoints once the code is instrumented. This is also true whenever you restart your debugging session. TclPro records breakpoints by line number, and each command is associated with the line that it begins on. A breakpoint triggers only when a command is about to execute that has the same line number as the given breakpoint. If you set a breakpoint on a line of code, and then later edit the file so that line number becomes a blank or comment line, TclPro Debugger retains the breakpoint in its memory and displays it in the breakpoint window, but the breakpoint does not appear in the code display, nor is it triggered.

    5.9. How can I force a breakpoint to occur as a result of pressing a button on my Tk GUI?
    There are two ways to do this. Both ways require that your button's callback script consist of a single procedure call. The callback script is the argument following the -command flag in the button command. This requirement exists because you cannot set line-breakpoints in callback scripts, nor can you single-step through these scripts. The following is an example of how to fix your callback script:
    button .main.quit -text "Q" -command {
     # ... lots of detailed code here ...
     destroy .
     exit
    }
    
    should be changed to
    proc quit {} {
    	# ... lots of detailed code here ...
    	destroy .
    	exit
    }
    button .main.quit -text "Q" -command quit
    
    Once you have made this change, you can add a breakpoint on the first line of code in the body of the procedure called in the button's callback script.

    Or, if your application is completely idle when you want to press the button in question, then you can force an interrupt to occur in the callback procedure. To do this, interrupt your idle application by pressing the "stop" button on the debugger's tool bar. Once the application stops, press the "step in" button on the debugger's tool bar. Then press the desired button on your application's GUI. TclPro Debugger stops just before evaluating the first line of code in the body of the callback procedure.

    5.10. A breakpoint that is set on a procedure definition only stops when the procedure is defined. How do I set a breakpoint on a procedure invocation?
    There are some cases when a programmer does want to stop the application just before a procedure is defined. If you want to stop the debugger each time the proc is invoked, you need to set the breakpoint on the first line of code in the procedure's body. Once a procedure has been defined in the application, you can use the Procedure window (via the View menu) to find the procedure's body.

    5.11. Does TclPro Debugger support debugging of multiple interps?
    RFE ID 468
    TclPro Debugger does not support debugging multiple interpreters. However, multiple interpreters could be debugged using multiple instances of the debugger. If each interpreter is treated as a separate remote application that uses a different port to connect to its own debugger instance, then multiple interpreter debugging could be accomplished.

    5.12. Does TclPro Debugger support debugging a multi-threaded application?
    RFE ID 1196
    TclPro Debugger currently does not support debugging a multi-threaded application.

    5.13. My Tk application's window doesn't appear until all the code is executed. How can I watch incremental progress?
    Tk redraws widgets after processing each event. Evaluation of the script that you entered in the project entry is one event, so redrawing doesn't occur until all the code is executed. However, the Tk command "update" causes the Tk interpreter to redraw all windows. To use this command without editing your Tk script, try the following:
    • run your application in TclPro Debugger
    • add a breakpoint on the line of code following the first call to pack, grid, or place.
    • continue running the application
    • once the application stops, open the "eval console" (E button on the toolbar)
    • type "update" in the "eval console" and press return
    • step through your application, calling "update" after each call to pack, grid, or place.

    5.14. I can see only built-in commands in the procedure window. How can I view the procedures that my application defines?
    If you view the procedure window just after launching the application (before running it), the procedures are not yet defined in the application, so the debugger cannot list them in the procedure window. In the following script, the procedure myProc cannot appear in the procedure window until it stops at the breakpoint on line 7.
    1  set x 0
    2
    3  proc myProc {} {
    4      puts "hello, world"
    5  }
    6
    *7  set y 1
    8  myProc
    

    5.15. Why is the Procedure Window empty?
    Procedure names can appear only in the Procedure Window when the application is stopped. Otherwise, the Debugger cannot guarantee that the procedure list is up-to-date.

    5.16. Why does the code display say "No source code available"?
    RFE ID 90
    When users hit the "stop" button while the program is waiting for events in the event loop, no code is displayed. This is normal, since no code was actually being executed in the current stack frame. See the stack display to find out how the event loop was entered.

    5.17. How can I get balloon help for the buttons in the tool bar?
    If you leave your mouse over a button for one second, a description of the button's functionality appears in the status bar in the lower left corner of the main Debugger window. We do realize this solution is not as nice as balloon help, and we are considering adding balloon help in some later release of TclPro.

    5.18. How do I debug an embedded or remotely running application?
    TclPro Debugger includes an API for embedded and remote applications. For instructions on how to use this API, see the section labeled "Debugging Remote, Embedded, and CGI Applications" in the TclPro User's Guide located in the doc directory of your TclPro distribution.

    Starting in TclPro 1.2, you need to create a project for your remote debugging session. To create a project, select File and New Project from the menu bar. Select Remote Debugging and specify a port number if you do not want to use the default (port 2576).

    If you have done remote debugging using TclPro 1.0 or 1.1, you still need to create a project as TclPro Debugger no longer uses the default settings for remote debugging. You should also check to make sure that the port number you specified after debugger_init is the same as the one you specified when creating the project. You can check if your application is connecting to TclPro Debugger by selecting the connection status window under the view option on the menu bar.

    5.19. I have set up my scripts for remote debugging. Does this affect the execution of my script if TclPro Debugger is not present?
    The way remote debugging works is first, debugger_init makes a connection to TclPro Debugger. Once the connection is established, debugger_eval sends the code and TclPro Debugger instruments the code it receives.

    If TclPro Debugger is absent, the application is not instrumented and executes normally.

    5.20. Windows only: How can I keep the stdout console from disappearing after the script exits?
    Use a line-based breakpoint to stop the application just before it exits. You may need to add an extra line of "dummy" code to your script.

    5.21. How can I change the value of a variable while the application is running?
    When the application is stopped, you can use the "Eval Console" (via the "E" button on the tool bar) to set variables. In fact, you can even set new variables and redefine procedures in the eval console.

    5.22. Why is the Eval Console grayed out?
    You can enter commands to be evaluated only when the application is stopped.

    5.23. Why can't I abbreviate commands or use the "ls" and "history" commands in the Eval Console?
    The target application is not running in interactive mode. Because the Eval Console is an interface into the target application, it cannot run in interactive mode either. Abbreviation of commands, as well as use of the "ls" and "history" commands is available only in interactive Tcl/Tk sessions.

    5.24. Will running my application in the debugger alter its behavior as compared to running my application independently?
    TclPro Debugger rarely affects the target application's behavior. There are several obscure cases in which the target application's communication with the debugger alters the target application's environment. For example, the value of the "info cmdcount" command is inflated by "Nub" calls that are necessary for communication with the debugger. Another example of altered application state occurs on Unix platforms: the difference with the debugger is that a file descriptor must always exist--that is the debugger connection to the application. On Unix, calls to "vwait" that are made when no file descriptor exists would normally return an error stating that the call "would wait forever". Since the debugger imposes a file descriptor, the bad "vwait" call will indeed wait forever. However, the user can introduce new events via the "Eval Console" to keep the application from hanging indefinitely. If you are experiencing what you consider to be "altered behavior", please check the known bug list and report the problem if it is not already listed there.

    5.25. If I run a script in TclPro Debugger, where do the stdout and stderr go?
    On Unix, stdout and stderr go to the shell where you invoke TclPro Debugger.

    5.26. I am debugging an application that includes bytecode files but I don't want TclPro Debugger to instrument these files. What can I do?
    You can specify the name of the bytecode files under the "Do Not Instrument" section under the Instrument tab in the project settings for the desired project.

    5.27. Can I use my custom interpreter with TclPro Debugger?
    TclPro Debugger will work with any custom interpreters that process arguments in the same fashion as a regular Tcl interpreter and do not rename or redefine any of the following core Tcl commands:
            append array break catch cd close concat continue
    
            eof error eval exit expr fconfigure file fileevent
    
            flush for foreach gets global if incr info lappend
    
            lindex linsert list llength lrange lreplace lsearch
    
            namespace open puts proc pwd read regexp regsub rename
    
            return set string switch trace unset uplevel upvar
    
            variable vwait while
    
    All you have to do is to specify your custom interpreter instead of selecting those provided with TclPro.

    If your interpreter doesn't accept as its first command-line argument a Tcl script to execute or if it doesn't pass subsequent command-line arguments to the script using the standard argc and argv Tcl variables, then you must take special steps to use your interpreter with TclPro Debugger. Please refer to the "Using Custom Tcl Interpreters with TclPro Debugger" section in Chapter 3 of the TclPro User's Guide.

    5.28. My application runs very slowly inside TclPro Debugger. What can I do to improve the speed?
    Instrumentation may affect the performance when running a large application in TclPro Debugger. There are two ways you can improve the speed:
    1. Specify which files you do not want to instrument. You can do this 
    by opening the project, select Project Settings from the File menu 
    option. Under the Instrumentation tab, specify the files you do not 
    want to instrument.
    
    2. Uninstrument selected procedures by bringing up the Proc window, 
    highlight the procedures you do not want to instrument and click 
    Uninstrument.
    

    6. TclPro Checker

    6.1. Can I use TclPro Checker to check Tcl 7.3 scripts?
    Yes. TclPro Checker works with Tcl/Tk versions 7.3/3.6 or later. Use the "-use" flag to specify which version of Tcl you wish to check your code against. You can use "-use tk8.0" to help upgrade your scripts to work in Tcl/Tk 8.0.

    6.2. Can I use TclPro Checker to check Tcl code that uses Tcl extensions?
    TclPro Checker checks the syntax of your Tcl code, regardless of which extensions your code uses. However, TclPro Checker checks only the number and types of arguments for commands defined in extensions that TclPro officially supports with the exception of [incr Widgets].

    6.3. Does TclPro Checker check for wrong number of arguments for user-defined procs?
    RFE ID 202
    The current version of TclPro Checker does not have this feature. However, we expect to include this feature in a future TclPro version.

    6.4. Does TclPro Checker check for use of undefined variables?
    RFE ID 203
    The current version of TclPro Checker does not have this feature. However, we expect to include this feature in a future TclPro version.

    6.5. Does TclPro Checker check for variables that are written to but never read or procedures that are defined but never called?
    RFE ID 247
    The current version of TclPro Checker does not have this feature. However, we expect to include this feature in a future TclPro version.

    6.6. Does TclPro Checker give warnings for Y2K violations?
    RFE ID 329
    The current version of TclPro Checker does not have this feature. However, we expect to include this feature in a future TclPro version.

    6.7. What does it mean when I get the message, "(warnExpr) use curly braces to avoid double substitution"?
    Tcl expressions perform a second level of command and variable substitution. In control structures like "while", it is important that variables and commands are substituted during this second round of substitution. For example, in the script:
    while $x < 1 { incr x }
    
    the while command will either loop forever or never run depending on the initial value of the variable x. In this case, the correct code would look like:
    while {$x < 1} { incr x }
    
    Turning the expression argument to 'while' into a literal value ensures that the value of x is re-substituted on each iteration of the loop when the expression does the second round of substitution.

    TclPro Checker generates warnings when a command expects an expression as an argument, and the expression requires substitutions. For example,

    expr $n * 42
    
    requires that $n be substituted. This could be rewritten as:
    expr {$n * 42}
    
    where no substitution is required. Most of the time, both of these commands will give exactly the same result. However there are a couple of important differences between them.

    First, in Tcl 8.0 the second example will produce more efficient code because only one round of substitutions is needed and the expression can be compiled inline.

    Additionally, if the value of 'n' is coming from an untrusted source (e.g. a socket), it is very important that the second form be used so that you do not introduce a security hole. If 'n' had the value [exit], then in the first example, the first round of substitution would cause the expression '[exit] * 42' to be executed and the 'exit' command would be invoked during the second round of substitution. In the second example, the same input would cause the expression '$n * 42' to be evaluated and the value [exit] would generate an invalid number error without executing the 'exit' command.

    7. TclPro Compiler

    7.1. In which Tcl interpreters can I run my compiled (*.tbc) Tcl files?
    Compiled (*.tbc) Tcl files can be sourced only by Tcl/Tk8.0.3 interpreters (prowish80 and protclsh80).

    7.2. Can Tcl files compiled by TclPro Compiler be sourced cross-platform?
    Yes. Files compiled by TclPro Compiler are valid Tcl code that can be sourced in Tcl/Tk 8.0.3 interpreters on any platform where TclPro is supported. The constraint that TclPro must be supported on the given platform exists because the tbcload package (required for sourcing compiled Tcl code) is available only on platforms where TclPro is available. See the TclPro license information for more details on how to distribute compiled Tcl code to your end-users.

    7.3. How can I source both the .tcl and .tbc file in my wrapped application?
    You can wrap the source command as follows:
    namespace eval startup {
    
    # Check if the bytecode reader can be loaded successfully.
    
    if {[catch {package require tbcload}] == 1} {
       variable ::hasLoader 0
    } else {
       variable ::hasLoader 1
    }
    }
    
    proc ::MySource { path } {
       variable ::hasLoader
    
       set stem [file rootname $path]
       set loadTcl 1
    
       # If the bytecode reader is loaded and the .tbc file exists,
       # load the .tbc file. Otherwise, load the .tcl file.
    
       if {($hasLoader == 1) && ([file exists $stem.tbc] == 1)} {
    	set loadTcl [catch {uplevel 1 [list source $stem.tbc]}]
       }
    
       if {$loadTcl == 1} {
    	uplevel 1 [list source $stem.tcl]
       }
    }
    
    Your script would use MySource instead of the original source command.

    7.4. Can I create a tclIndex file from the .tbc files?
    Yes. In Tcl 8.0.5, the auto_mkIndex command has been enhanced to process the .tbc file. Please note that this does not work if the original script contains code that executes outside of procedure definitions.

    7.5. Can I create a pkgIndex file from the .tbc files?
    Yes. In Tcl 8.0.4, to process a library that contains .tbc files, you must use the following command:

    pkg_mkIndex -load tbcload $dir *.tbc

    so that the tbcload package is loaded into the slave interpreter used to process the index. Please note that the pkg_mkIndex mechanism has been improved significantly in Tcl 8.0.4. We recommend that you upgrade to this version of Tcl if your work involves setting up packages.

    7.6. When I run my compiled Tcl script, I get the error "The TclPro ByteCode Loader is not available"
    This error occurs when you try to source a compiled Tcl file in any interpreter other than Tcl/Tk8.0.3 (prowish80 and protclsh80).

    7.7. When I compile a Tcl script, are any of the comments still visible in the compiled file?
    By default, TclPro Compiler copies the leading comments from the input file to the compiled file. Leading comments means everything from the start of the file to the first non-comment or empty line. The remaining comments in the input file do not appear in the compiled file. To avoid copying any comments, add the "-prefix none" argument to the procomp command line. To copy more comments than the default allows, add the "-prefix tag" argument to the procomp command line.

    7.8. When I compile a Tcl script, what code is hidden?
    The answer to this question depends on what you mean by "hidden".

    TclPro Compiler stores all Tcl strings with a modified ASCII-85 compression algorithm. This means that the components of your Tcl script are not readily available to a casual observer; for example, if someone were to open your .tbc files in a text editor, all they would see is a long sequence of characters. However, ASCII-85 is not an encryption algorithm, and it is expected that even relatively unsophisticated users can extract the clear-text.

    There is a second level of hiding that applies to components of the script that were compiled. In this case, the source is not present in the .tbc file; rather, the byte-codes are. Because Tcl provides a high degree of support for introspection, it is possible in many cases to reconstruct the sources from the byte-codes. How easy this is depends on the original nature of the sources that were compiled. In general, if the sources contain many calls to commands that are compiled by Tcl, it is harder to reconstruct the original.

    Currently, TclPro Compiler compiles the top-level script, plus procedure bodies for procedures that are defined at the top level and where the arguments to the proc command are not subcommands or variable references. For example, the procedure body of "foo" will be hidden by TclPro Compiler, but the procedure body of "bar" will not be hidden:

    proc foo {x y} {
       return [list $x $y]
    }
    
    set body {return [list $x $y]}
    proc bar {x y} $body
    

    7.9. When I run my compiled Tcl script, I get the error "called a copy of a compiled script". What is causing this error?
    For procedures defined in compiled code, the "info body" command returns the following:
    body = # Compiled -- no source code available
    
    The "called a copy of a compiled script" error occurs when your compiled Tcl code tries to evaluate the result of "info body". For example:
    proc A {} {
      set x 5
      return "hello world $x"
    }
    proc B {} [info body A]
    B
    
    A work-around is to use the alias mechanism:
    proc A {} {
      set x 5
      return "hello world $x"
    }
    interp alias {} B {} A
    B
    

    8. Tcl Wrapper

    8.1. How do I use the bundled extensions in my wrapped application?
    The bundled extenstions are provided as packages. This allows you to load only the packages you want to work with. Your wrapped application must execute the package require command to load each package individually, just as an unwrapped protclsh80 or prowish80 application would.
    	package require Itcl
    	package require Itk
    	package require Iwidgets
    	package require Expect
    	package require Tclx
    

    8.2. Can I use TclPro Wrapper with unsupported extensions?
    Yes. You first have to decide if you want to build a statically linked or a dynamically linked wrapped application. For a statically linked wrapped application, you need to build a custom interpreter that includes your extensions and the support for TclPro Wrapper. Please refer to the "How to Wrap" section at:
    http://www.scriptics.com/support/howto/wrap.html
    
    for more information on how to build the interpreter.

    If you plan to create a dynamically linked wrapped application, you can distribute your extensions along with the wrapped application. Please refer to the TclPro Wrapper chapter in our User's Guide for more information on how to distribute a dynamically wrapped application.

    8.3. Can I create a stand-alone executable for a Tk 4.2 application?
    You must wrap your Tcl scripts with Tcl/Tk8.0.3 interpreters (prowish80 and protclsh80). TclPro Checker can help you make your Tk 4.2 code Tk8.0.3 compatible.

    8.4. Can wrapped applications run cross-platform?
    No. Wrapped applications include a binary Tcl interpreter, which does not run cross-platform.

    8.5. Can I wrap a Tcl application that runs in a custom Tcl interpreter?
    Yes. Your custom interpreter must be based on Tcl/Tk8.0.3. You need to build your custom interpreter using some libraries provided in the TclPro installation. The demos/sampleApp directory of your TclPro distribution contains an example of how to do this. Additionally, you can follow the examples in Chapter 7 and the "Wrapping Applications with a Custom Interpreter" section of Chapter 6 of the TclPro User's Guide for more information.

    If your custom interpreter requires dynamically loadable files, please refer to questions related to dynamically loadable files in this section.

    8.6. Can I wrap dynamically loadable (DLL, .so or .sl) files?
    RFE ID 455
    You cannot wrap dynamically loadable files. This is because TclPro Wrapper does not support the "load" command to load wrapped .dll, .so, or .sl files. The "load" command cannot find files that are wrapped inside your application because the "load" command is implemented using operating system specific API calls. These APIs expect the DLL file to be available in the context of the disk file system and not wrapped files.

    If you wrap the file foo.dll with a Tcl script containing the command "load foo.dll", you will get the error "couldn't load file foo.dll: invalid argument" when the wrapped application evaluates to "load" call.

    There are two ways to work around this issue:

    1. Modify your Tcl code to copy the DLL from the wrapped application to a temporary directory in the end-user's disk, and then use the "load" command specifying the DLL in the temporary directory. Your new Tcl code may look like the following:

    set f [open goo.dll r]
    fconfigure $f -translation {binary binary}  -buffersize [expr {[file size _$file] + 1}]
    set data [read $f]
    close $f
    set f [open c:/windows/temp/goo.dll w]
    fconfigure $f -translation {binary binary}
    puts $f $data close $f
    load c:/temp/goo.dll
    

    Please note that the wrapped application must use a dynamically linked base application such as tclsh-dynamic or wish-dynamic. If you use a statically linked base application such as tclsh or wish, you receive an error that the load command is not supported when executing the wrapped application. For additional information about the required use of dynamically linked base applications, please refer to additional questions in this section.

    2. Statically link the code used to build the DLL directly with the libraries provided with TclPro to create a custom Tcl interpreter. The "load" command would not need to be used in this case, but a "Tcl_AppInit()" routine would need to perform the functionality of the "_Init()" routine from the DLL. Please refer to the "Creating Base Application for TclPro Wrapper" section of Chapter 7 in the TclPro User's Guide for more information on how to build a base application for TclPro Wrapper.

    8.7. My application requires dynamically loadable (DLL, .so or .sl) files. Can I use TclPro Wrapper to wrap my application?
    When you invoke TclPro Wrapper with the -uses option and one of the following predefined configurations: tclsh or wish, you are wrapping your Tcl code with a statically linked base application. This statically linked base application will have separate C runtime libraries from the DLLs you plan to load. The use of different runtime libraries (one in the base application and another in your DLL) in a single application may result in memory corruption, causing erratic behaviors in your wrapped application.

    This problem can be circumvented by using a dynamically linked base application which can share runtime libraries with DLLs. TclPro Wrapper provides two dynamically linked base applications (tclsh-dynamic or wish-dynamic) that you can use to build the application. When you distribute your application, the DLLs that will be loaded should be shipped together with the executable. This will require an installation step to set up the application.

    Starting with TclPro 1.1, the load command is no longer supported if you wrap your application using a statically linked base application due to the reason mentioned above. The following error message will be raised if you use the load command in a statically linked wrapped application:

    "load" command is not supported in a statically wrapped application; 
    use "load_unsupported" command
    
    Please note that although you can use the load_unsupported command, it is not recommended and will not be supported if you run into problems.

    8.8. Can end-users see the files in a wrapped application?
    You can "hide" your Tcl code by compiling it before wrapping it. See the compileAndWrap.tcl demo in the demos directory of your TclPro release. As for hiding data files that you may wrap in your application, TclPro does not include a way to "hide" these files unless you turn the data files into Tcl code, where a variable is set to the data inside of a procedure body. If you really need to hide them, then you can encrypt the files and wrap a decryption mechanism with your application.

    8.9. I want to wrap an application that reads and writes to a file. When I include this file in my wrapped application, my application would hang.
    Files that are wrapped using TclPro Wrapper are read-only files. They cannot be modified by the wrapped application. If your wrapped application needs to both read and write to a file, we recommend that you put the file in a known location on the file system and reference this file using an absolute pathname to make sure that the application will always access the correct file.

    8.10. My application uses the Opt package provided in the TclPro/lib/tcl8.0 directory. Why is this package not automatically included when I wrap my application?
    When you wrap your application, TclPro Wrapper does not automatically include the Opt package. You have to explicitly wrap this package by including files in the TclPro/lib/tcl8.0/opt1.0 directory in your prowrap command.

    8.11. Can I use the Windows library files provided by TclPro with a Borland compiler?
    The Windows library files provided with TclPro are for Microsoft Visual C++ 5.0 only. However, if you are using Borland compiler version 5.0, you can linked with the DLL we provide. As for the .lib files, you can use "implib" utility to generate a Borland compatible library from the DLL.

    9. [incr Tcl] 3.0

    9.1. How can I use [incr Tcl], [incr Tk], and [incr Widgets] with protclsh80 or prowish80?
    You must first load the packages as follows:
    package require Itcl
    package require Itk
    package require Iwidgets
    
    It is a good practice to always prefix the commands and widgets with the namespaces in which they reside. However, if you want to use the commands and widgets without having to prefix each one with the corresponding namespaces, you will have to import them into the global namespace as follows:
    namespace import -force ::itcl::*
    namespace eval iwidgets {namespace export \[a-z\]*} 
    namespace import iwidgets::* 
    

    10. Expect 5.29

    10.1. Is Expect supported on Windows?
    Expect is a supported extension on Unix only. If you need to use Expect on Windows, you can download it from the following site:
    	http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/people/chaffee/expectnt.html
    
    Please note that Expect is available with TclPro 1.2 and higher and the Windows version is not supported by Scriptics.