Tcl 8.7/Tk8.7 Documentation > Tk Commands > photo

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NAME
photo — Full-color images
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CREATING PHOTOS
-data string
-format {format-name ?option value ...?}
-file name
-gamma value
-height number
-palette palette-spec
-width number
IMAGE COMMAND
imageName blank
imageName cget option
imageName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
imageName copy sourceImage ?option value(s) ...?
-from x1 y1 x2 y2
-to x1 y1 x2 y2
-shrink
-zoom x y
-subsample x y
-compositingrule rule
imageName data ?option value(s) ...?
-background color
-format {format-name ?option value ...?}
-from x1 y1 x2 y2
-grayscale
imageName get x y ?-withalpha?
imageName put data ?option value(s) ...?
-format {format-name ?option value ..?}
-to x1 y1 ?x2 y2?
imageName read filename ?option value(s) ...?
-format {format-name ?option value ..?}
-from x1 y1 x2 y2
-shrink
-to x y
imageName redither
imageName transparency subcommand ?arg arg ...?
imageName transparency get x y ?-alpha?
imageName transparency set x y newVal ?-alpha?
imageName write filename ?option value(s) ...?
-background color
-format {format-name ?option value ...?}
-from x1 y1 x2 y2
-grayscale
IMAGE FORMATS
THE DEFAULT IMAGE HANDLER
FORMAT SUBOPTIONS
default -colorformat formatType
gif -index indexValue
png -alpha alphaValue
svg -dpi dpiValue -scale scaleValue -scaletowidth width -scaletoheight height
COLOR FORMATS
COLOR ALLOCATION
CREDITS
EXAMPLE
SEE ALSO
KEYWORDS

NAME

photo — Full-color images

SYNOPSIS

image create photo ?name? ?options?

imageName blank
imageName cget option
imageName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
imageName copy sourceImage ?option value(s) ...?
imageName data ?option value(s) ...?
imageName get x y ?option?
imageName put data ?option value(s) ...?
imageName read filename ?option value(s) ...?
imageName redither
imageName transparency subcommand ?arg arg ...?
imageName write filename ?option value(s) ...?

DESCRIPTION

A photo is an image whose pixels can display any color with a varying degree of transparency (the alpha channel). A photo image is stored internally in full color (32 bits per pixel), and is displayed using dithering if necessary. Image data for a photo image can be obtained from a file or a string, or it can be supplied from C code through a procedural interface. At present, only PNG, GIF and PPM/PGM formats are supported, but an interface exists to allow additional image file formats to be added easily. A photo image is (semi)transparent if the image data it was obtained from had transparency informaton. In regions where no image data has been supplied, it is fully transparent. Transparency may also be modified with the transparency set subcommand.

CREATING PHOTOS

Like all images, photos are created using the image create command. Photos support the following options:

-data string
Specifies the contents of the image as a string. The string should contain data in the default list-of-lists form, binary data or, for some formats, base64-encoded data (this is currently guaranteed to be supported for PNG and GIF images). The format of the string must be one of those for which there is an image file format handler that will accept string data. If both the -data and -file options are specified, the -file option takes precedence.

-format {format-name ?option value ...?}
Specifies the name of the file format for the data specified with the -data or -file option and optional arguments passed to the format handler. Note: the value of this option must be a Tcl list. This means that the braces may be omitted if the argument has only one word. Also, instead of braces, double quotes may be used for quoting.

-file name
name gives the name of a file that is to be read to supply data for the photo image. The file format must be one of those for which there is an image file format handler that can read data.

-gamma value
Specifies that the colors allocated for displaying this image in a window should be corrected for a non-linear display with the specified gamma exponent value. (The intensity produced by most CRT displays is a power function of the input value, to a good approximation; gamma is the exponent and is typically around 2). The value specified must be greater than zero. The default value is one (no correction). In general, values greater than one will make the image lighter, and values less than one will make it darker.

-height number
Specifies the height of the image, in pixels. This option is useful primarily in situations where the user wishes to build up the contents of the image piece by piece. A value of zero (the default) allows the image to expand or shrink vertically to fit the data stored in it.

-palette palette-spec
Specifies the resolution of the color cube to be allocated for displaying this image, and thus the number of colors used from the colormaps of the windows where it is displayed. The palette-spec string may be either a single decimal number, specifying the number of shades of gray to use, or three decimal numbers separated by slashes (/), specifying the number of shades of red, green and blue to use, respectively. If the first form (a single number) is used, the image will be displayed in monochrome (i.e., grayscale).

-width number
Specifies the width of the image, in pixels. This option is useful primarily in situations where the user wishes to build up the contents of the image piece by piece. A value of zero (the default) allows the image to expand or shrink horizontally to fit the data stored in it.

IMAGE COMMAND

When a photo image is created, Tk also creates a new command whose name is the same as the image. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the image. It has the following general form:
imageName option ?arg arg ...?
Option and the args determine the exact behavior of the command.

Those options that write data to the image generally expand the size of the image, if necessary, to accommodate the data written to the image, unless the user has specified non-zero values for the -width and/or -height configuration options, in which case the width and/or height, respectively, of the image will not be changed.

The following commands are possible for photo images:

imageName blank
Blank the image; that is, set the entire image to have no data, so it will be displayed as transparent, and the background of whatever window it is displayed in will show through.

imageName cget option
Returns the current value of the configuration option given by option. Option may have any of the values accepted by the image create photo command.

imageName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
Query or modify the configuration options for the image. If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available options for imageName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value, then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the given option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the values accepted by the image create photo command.

imageName copy sourceImage ?option value(s) ...?
Copies a region from the image called sourceImage (which must be a photo image) to the image called imageName, possibly with pixel zooming and/or subsampling. If no options are specified, this command copies the whole of sourceImage into imageName, starting at coordinates (0,0) in imageName. The following options may be specified:

-from x1 y1 x2 y2
Specifies a rectangular sub-region of the source image to be copied. (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) specify diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle. If x2 and y2 are not specified, the default value is the bottom-right corner of the source image. The pixels copied will include the left and top edges of the specified rectangle but not the bottom or right edges. If the -from option is not given, the default is the whole source image.

-to x1 y1 x2 y2
Specifies a rectangular sub-region of the destination image to be affected. (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) specify diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle. If x2 and y2 are not specified, the default value is (x1,y1) plus the size of the source region (after subsampling and zooming, if specified). If x2 and y2 are specified, the source region will be replicated if necessary to fill the destination region in a tiled fashion.

-shrink
Specifies that the size of the destination image should be reduced, if necessary, so that the region being copied into is at the bottom-right corner of the image. This option will not affect the width or height of the image if the user has specified a non-zero value for the -width or -height configuration option, respectively.

-zoom x y
Specifies that the source region should be magnified by a factor of x in the X direction and y in the Y direction. If y is not given, the default value is the same as x. With this option, each pixel in the source image will be expanded into a block of x x y pixels in the destination image, all the same color. x and y must be greater than 0.

-subsample x y
Specifies that the source image should be reduced in size by using only every xth pixel in the X direction and yth pixel in the Y direction. Negative values will cause the image to be flipped about the Y or X axes, respectively. If y is not given, the default value is the same as x.

-compositingrule rule
Specifies how transparent pixels in the source image are combined with the destination image. When a compositing rule of overlay is set, the old contents of the destination image are visible, as if the source image were printed on a piece of transparent film and placed over the top of the destination. When a compositing rule of set is set, the old contents of the destination image are discarded and the source image is used as-is. The default compositing rule is overlay.

imageName data ?option value(s) ...?
Returns image data in the form of a string. The format of the string depends on the format handler. By default, a human readable format as a list of lists of pixel data is used, other formats can be chosen with the -format option. See IMAGE FORMATS below for details. The following options may be specified:

-background color
If the color is specified, the data will not contain any transparency information. In all transparent pixels the color will be replaced by the specified color.

-format {format-name ?option value ...?}
Specifies the name of the image file format handler to use and, optionally, arguments to the format handler. Specifically, this subcommand searches for the first handler whose name matches an initial substring of format-name and which has the capability to write a string containing this image data. If this option is not given, this subcommand uses the default format that consists of a list (one element per row) of lists (one element per pixel/column) of colors in “#rrggbb” format (see IMAGE FORMATS below). Note: the value of this option must be a Tcl list. This means that the braces may be omitted if the argument has only one word. Also, instead of braces, double quotes may be used for quoting.

-from x1 y1 x2 y2
Specifies a rectangular region of imageName to be returned. If only x1 and y1 are specified, the region extends from (x1,y1) to the bottom-right corner of imageName. If all four coordinates are given, they specify diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular region, including x1,y1 and excluding x2,y2. The default, if this option is not given, is the whole image.

-grayscale
If this options is specified, the data will not contain color information. All pixel data will be transformed into grayscale.

imageName get x y ?-withalpha?
Returns the color of the pixel at coordinates (x,y) in the image as a list of three integers between 0 and 255, representing the red, green and blue components respectively. If the -withalpha option is specified, the returned list will have a fourth element representing the alpha value of the pixel as an integer between 0 and 255.

imageName put data ?option value(s) ...?
Sets pixels in imageName to the data specified in data. This command searches the list of image file format handlers for a handler that can interpret the data in data, and then reads the image encoded within into imageName (the destination image). See IMAGE FORMATS below for details on formats for image data. The following options may be specified:

-format {format-name ?option value ..?}
Specifies the format of the image data in data and, optionally, arguments to be passed to the format handler. Specifically, only image file format handlers whose names begin with format-name will be used while searching for an image data format handler to read the data. Note: the value of this option must be a Tcl list. This means that the braces may be omitted if the argument has only one word. Also, instead of braces, double quotes may be used for quoting.

-to x1 y1 ?x2 y2?
Specifies the coordinates of the top-left corner (x1,y1) of the region of imageName into which the image data will be copied. The default position is (0,0). If x2,y2 is given and data is not large enough to cover the rectangle specified by this option, the image data extracted will be tiled so it covers the entire destination rectangle. If the region specified with this opion is smaller than the supplied data, the exceeding data is silently discarded. Note that if data specifies a single color value, then a region extending to the bottom-right corner represented by (x2,y2) will be filled with that color.

imageName read filename ?option value(s) ...?
Reads image data from the file named filename into the image. This command first searches the list of image file format handlers for a handler that can interpret the data in filename, and then reads the image in filename into imageName (the destination image). The following options may be specified:

-format {format-name ?option value ..?}
Specifies the format of the image data in filename and, optionally, additional options to the format handler. Specifically, only image file format handlers whose names begin with format-name will be used while searching for an image data format handler to read the data. Note: the value of this option must be a Tcl list. This means that the braces may be omitted if the argument has only one word. Also, instead of braces, double quotes may be used for quoting.

-from x1 y1 x2 y2
Specifies a rectangular sub-region of the image file data to be copied to the destination image. If only x1 and y1 are specified, the region extends from (x1,y1) to the bottom-right corner of the image in the image file. If all four coordinates are specified, they specify diagonally opposite corners or the region. The default, if this option is not specified, is the whole of the image in the image file.

-shrink
If this option, the size of imageName will be reduced, if necessary, so that the region into which the image file data are read is at the bottom-right corner of the imageName. This option will not affect the width or height of the image if the user has specified a non-zero value for the -width or -height configuration option, respectively.

-to x y
Specifies the coordinates of the top-left corner of the region of imageName into which data from filename are to be read. The default is (0,0).

imageName redither
The dithering algorithm used in displaying photo images propagates quantization errors from one pixel to its neighbors. If the image data for imageName is supplied in pieces, the dithered image may not be exactly correct. Normally the difference is not noticeable, but if it is a problem, this command can be used to recalculate the dithered image in each window where the image is displayed.

imageName transparency subcommand ?arg arg ...?
Allows examination and manipulation of the transparency information in the photo image. Several subcommands are available:

imageName transparency get x y ?-alpha?
Returns true if the pixel at (x,y) is fully transparent, false otherwise. If the option -alpha is passed, returns the alpha value of the pixel instead, as an integer in the range 0 to 255.

imageName transparency set x y newVal ?-alpha?
Change the transparency of the pixel at (x,y) to newVal. If no additional option is passed, newVal is interpreted as a boolean and the pixel is made fully transparent if that value is true, fully opaque otherwise. If the -alpha option is passed, newVal is interpreted as an integral alpha value for the pixel, which must be in the range 0 to 255.

imageName write filename ?option value(s) ...?
Writes image data from imageName to a file named filename. The following options may be specified:

-background color
If the color is specified, the data will not contain any transparency information. In all transparent pixels the color will be replaced by the specified color.

-format {format-name ?option value ...?}
Specifies the name of the image file format handler to be used to write the data to the file and, optionally, options to pass to the format handler. Specifically, this subcommand searches for the first handler whose name matches an initial substring of format-name and which has the capability to write an image file. If this option is not given, the format is guessed from the file extension. If that cannot be determined, this subcommand uses the first handler that has the capability to write an image file. Note: the value of this option must be a Tcl list. This means that the braces may be omitted if the argument has only one word. Also, instead of braces, double quotes may be used for quoting.

-from x1 y1 x2 y2
Specifies a rectangular region of imageName to be written to the image file. If only x1 and y1 are specified, the region extends from (x1,y1) to the bottom-right corner of imageName. If all four coordinates are given, they specify diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular region. The default, if this option is not given, is the whole image.

-grayscale
If this options is specified, the data will not contain color information. All pixel data will be transformed into grayscale.

IMAGE FORMATS

The photo image code is structured to allow handlers for additional image file formats to be added easily. The photo image code maintains a list of these handlers. Handlers are added to the list by registering them with a call to Tk_CreatePhotoImageFormat. The standard Tk distribution comes with handlers for PPM/PGM, PNG and GIF formats, as well as the default handler to encode/decode image data in a human readable form. These handlers are automatically registered on initialization.

When reading an image file or processing string data specified with the -data configuration option, the photo image code invokes each handler in turn until one is found that claims to be able to read the data in the file or string. Usually this will find the correct handler, but if it does not, the user may give a format name with the -format option to specify which handler to use. In this case, the photo image code will try those handlers whose names begin with the string specified for the -format option (the comparison is case-insensitive). For example, if the user specifies -format gif, then a handler named GIF87 or GIF89 may be invoked, but a handler named JPEG may not (assuming that such handlers had been registered).

When writing image data to a file, the processing of the -format option is slightly different: the string value given for the -format option must begin with the complete name of the requested handler, and may contain additional information following that, which the handler can use, for example, to specify which variant to use of the formats supported by the handler. Note that not all image handlers may support writing transparency data to a file, even where the target image format does.

THE DEFAULT IMAGE HANDLER

The default image handler cannot be used to read or write data from/to a file. Its sole purpose is to encode and decode image data in string form in a clear text, human readable, form. The imageName data subcommand uses this handler when no other format is specified. When reading image data from a string with imageName put or the -data option, the default handler is treated as the other handlers.

Image data in the default string format is a (top-to-bottom) list of scan-lines, with each scan-line being a (left-to-right) list of pixel data. Every scan-line has the same length. The color and, optionally, alpha value of each pixel is specified in any of the forms described in the COLOR FORMATS section below.

FORMAT SUBOPTIONS

Image formats may support sub-options, wich ahre specified using additional words in the value to the -format option. These suboptions can affect how image data is read or written to file or string. The nature and values of these options is up to the format handler. The built-in handlers support these suboptions:

default -colorformat formatType
The option is allowed when writing image data to a string with imageName data. Specifies the format to use for the color string of each pixel. formatType may be one of: rgb to encode pixel data in the form #RRGGBB, rgba to encode pixel data in the form #RRGGBBAA or list to encode pixel data as a list with four elements. See COLOR FORMATS below for details. The default is rgb.

gif -index indexValue
The option has effect when reading image data from a file. When parsing a multi-part GIF image, Tk normally only accesses the first image. By giving the -index sub-option, the indexValue'th value may be used instead. The indexValue must be an integer from 0 up to the number of image parts in the GIF data.

png -alpha alphaValue
The option has effect when reading image data from a file. Specifies an additional alpha filtering for the overall image, which allows the background on which the image is displayed to show through. This usually also has the effect of desaturating the image. The alphaValue must be between 0.0 and 1.0.

svg -dpi dpiValue -scale scaleValue -scaletowidth width -scaletoheight height
dpiValue is used in conversion between given coordinates and screen resolution. The value must be greater than 0 and the default value is 96. scaleValue is used to scale the resulting image. The value must be greater than 0 and the default value is 1. width and height are the width or height that the image will be adjusted to. Only one parameter among -scale, -scaletowidth and -scaletoheight can be given at a time and the aspect ratio of the original image is always preserved. The svg format supports a wide range of SVG features, but the full SVG standard is not available, for instance the 'text' feature is missing and silently ignored when reading the SVG data. The supported SVG features are:
elements: g, path, rect, circle, ellipse, line, polyline, polygon, linearGradient, radialGradient, stop, defs, svg, style

attributes: width, height, viewBox, preserveAspectRatio with none, xMin, xMid, xMax, yMin, yMid, yMax, slice

gradient attributes: gradientUnits with objectBoundingBox, gradientTransform, cx, cy, r fx, fy x1, y1, x2, y2 spreadMethod with pad, reflect or repeat, xlink:href

poly attributes: points

line attributes: x1, y1, x2, y2

ellipse attributes: cx, cy, rx, ry

circle attributes: cx, cy, r

rectangle attributes: x, y, width, height, rx, ry

path attributes: d with m, M, l, L, h, H, v, V, c, C, s, S, q, Q, t, T, a, A, z, Z

style attributes: display with none, visibility, hidden, visible, fill with nonzero and evenodd, opacity, fill-opacity, stroke, stroke-width, stroke-dasharray, stroke-dashoffset, stroke-opacity, stroke-linecap with butt, round and square, stroke-linejoin with miter, round and bevel, stroke-miterlimit fill-rule, font-size, transform with matrix, translate, scale, rotate, skewX and skewY, stop-color, stop-opacity, offset, id, class

Currently only SVG images reading and conversion into (pixel-based format) photos is supported: Tk does not (yet) support bundling photo images in SVG vector graphics.

COLOR FORMATS

The default image handler can represent/parse color and alpha values of a pixel in one of the formats listed below. If a color format does not contain transparency information, full opacity is assumed. The available color formats are:

COLOR ALLOCATION

When a photo image is displayed in a window, the photo image code allocates colors to use to display the image and dithers the image, if necessary, to display a reasonable approximation to the image using the colors that are available. The colors are allocated as a color cube, that is, the number of colors allocated is the product of the number of shades of red, green and blue.

Normally, the number of colors allocated is chosen based on the depth of the window. For example, in an 8-bit PseudoColor window, the photo image code will attempt to allocate seven shades of red, seven shades of green and four shades of blue, for a total of 198 colors. In a 1-bit StaticGray (monochrome) window, it will allocate two colors, black and white. In a 24-bit DirectColor or TrueColor window, it will allocate 256 shades each of red, green and blue. Fortunately, because of the way that pixel values can be combined in DirectColor and TrueColor windows, this only requires 256 colors to be allocated. If not all of the colors can be allocated, the photo image code reduces the number of shades of each primary color and tries again.

The user can exercise some control over the number of colors that a photo image uses with the -palette configuration option. If this option is used, it specifies the maximum number of shades of each primary color to try to allocate. It can also be used to force the image to be displayed in shades of gray, even on a color display, by giving a single number rather than three numbers separated by slashes.

CREDITS

The photo image type was designed and implemented by Paul Mackerras, based on his earlier photo widget and some suggestions from John Ousterhout.

EXAMPLE

Load an image from a file and tile it to the size of a window, which is useful for producing a tiled background:

# These lines should be called once
image create photo untiled -file "theFile.ppm"
image create photo tiled

# These lines should be called whenever .someWidget changes
# size; a <Configure> binding is useful here
set width  [winfo width .someWidget]
set height [winfo height .someWidget]
tiled copy untiled -to 0 0 $width $height -shrink

The PNG image loader allows the application of an additional alpha factor during loading, which is useful for generating images suitable for disabled buttons:

image create photo icon -file "icon.png"
image create photo iconDisabled -file "icon.png" \
        -format "png -alpha 0.5"
button .b -image icon -disabledimage iconDisabled

Create a green box with a simple shadow effect

image create photo foo

# Make a simple graduated fill varying in alpha for the shadow
for {set i 14} {$i > 0} {incr i -1} {
   set i2 [expr {$i + 30}]
   foo put [format black#%x [expr {15-$i}]] -to $i $i $i2 $i2
}

# Put a solid green rectangle on top
foo put #F080 -to 0 0 30 30

SEE ALSO

image

KEYWORDS

photo, image, color
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Copyright © 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.