TIP #279: Adding an Extensible Object System to the Core


TIP:279
Title:Adding an Extensible Object System to the Core
Version:$Revision: 1.10 $
Authors: Gustaf Neumann <neumann at wu-wien dot ac dot at>
Larry W. Virden <lvirden at yahoo dot com>
State:Draft
Type:Project
Tcl-Version:8.7
Vote:Pending
Created:Thursday, 05 October 2006

Abstract

This TIP proposes adding OO support to the Tcl core, consisting mostly of a dispatcher plus a small number of helper commands. The TIP allows the coexistence of multiple object systems by providing a common framework, the Tcl Minimal Object System (TMOS). The framework will contain, as well, a small, basic oriented language (Tcl Core Object Oriented Language, TclCOOL) to make it usable in the core without any extensions. All defined commands of the minimal object system are defined in the ::oo namespace, which is not used by any current mainstream OO system. It has been designed specifically to allow a relatively simple re-implementation of the known object systems.

Rationale and Basic Requirements

Rather than proposing any kind of OO language, the TIP suggests to add a framework to the core that many existing and future extensions (including XOTcl) can use. This framework alone is not useful as an OO language, but is an environment that can host multiple OO languages in parallel, such as Snit or XOTcl (maybe the language from current TIP #257 as well), without pushing a single model. Languages like Snit or XOTcl can continue to develop, the core developers can optimize and integrate better with the tcl-core, etc.

The framework (Tcl Minimal Object System, TMOS) consists of an flexible object interpreter (dispatcher) able to run the most powerful current object extensions. This dispatcher is accompanied by a "minimal object system" and a small set of predefined, but unattached methods (basic method set) and an "extension mechanism". For the bootstrapping of different object systems, only a single method for allocating objects or classes is proposed, plus a few commands for setting up the object/class relations and registering methods.

The Tcl Minimal Object System is used for the definition of TclCOOL (Tcl Core Object Oriented Language). TclCOOL is simple but powerful object language realized with TMOS.

Additional object systems (like XOTcl, SNIT or STOOP) can be loaded as an extensions (being not part of the core), and can provide their own method-sets (or re-use the predefined method set, or reuse the methods-set of some extension).

This approach provides a flexibility much higher than in other popular scripting languages and lets object system designers continue to improve their work based on Tcl.

The Tcl Minimal Object System

The minimal object system consists of a base class (::oo::object) and a meta-class (::oo::class, subclass of ::oo::object).

   name of class  kind of class  superclass     instance-of
  ==========================================================
   ::oo::object   class          ::oo::object   ::oo::class
   ::oo::class    meta-class     ::oo::object   ::oo::class

The meta-class ::oo::class has two methods named "alloc" and "dealloc" (names are arbitrary, as shown later) to create objects or classes. ::oo::object has no methods at all.

The minimal object system is intended to be specialized by one or more different object systems. An object system is created by sub-classing the base classes, configuring these according to the object systems needs. This configuration consists of defining its relations to the general base and meta-class, and equipping these extension-specific classes with additional functionality (providing methods). The whole configuration of the object system can be done completely from the scripting level.

The minimal object system defines the following commands and methods in the ::oo namespace:

The Tcl command ::oo::setrelation

   ::oo::setrelation class|obj <relation> <target>

allows one to define/redefine relations between objects, classes and mixins. This is a primitive command designed for the language developer, not for the user of the implemented object oriented language. The following relations are supported: mixin (abbreviation for per-object mixin), instmixin (for per-class mixin), filter (for per-object filter), instfilter (for per-class filter), class, and superclass. The meaning of these relations is defined by the dispatcher, which is responsible for the linearization of the commands.

The dispatcher determines the invocation order depending on the precedence order and the resolution order. The precedence order defines the priorization of classes and determines therefore the shadowing of methods. The precedence order is per-object mixins, followed by per-class mixins, followed by the class hierarchy. All of these refer not to single classes but to class hierarchies, where the contained classes are linearized; when a class is mixed into a precedence order, where it is already present, it has no effect. The precedence of object specific methods is between mixins and the intrinsic class hierarchy.

The method resolution order overlays the precedence order. While the precedence order determines, what method should be called, the method resolution order determines what other methods should be called before this method. The resolution order supports per class filters (methods to be called before every method dispatch for every instance of this class) and per-object filters (to be called before every method dispatch of this object). Filters are defined in a filter chain, where object specific filters take precedence over class specific filters. Filters can change the results of methods. Immediately before and after certain methods pre- and post-conditions can be evaluated (similar to method-combinators in CLOS), between statements, invariants can be checked.

The invocation order defines the layering of methods, the method chaining (calling shadowed/filtered methods) is performed through the command next. Per-object filters, per-class filters, per-object mixins and per-class mixins can be applied conditionally based on tcl-expressions (guards) executed int the object context.

When an undefined method is invoked on an object, the call (method name and the arguments of the invocation) are passed to the method unknown. If no such method exists, an error message is generated.

The Tcl command ::oo::alias

   ::oo::alias class|obj methodName ?-objscope? ?-per-object? cmdName

registers a command (cmdName) under a certain name (methodName) to an object or class (1st argument) to make the command available as a method. The options -objscope makes instance variables of the object/class appear as local variables, therefore Tcl commands to which variable names are passed (e.g. set, append, lappend, ...) can access instance variables without additional effort.

Example for defining TclCOOL (Tcl Core Object Oriented Language)

Create base and meta class:

   namespace eval tcl-cool {}
   ::oo::class alloc ::tcl-cool::object
   ::oo::class alloc ::tcl-cool::class

After creation, the classes ::tcl-cool::class and ::tcl-cool::object are instances of ::oo::class. This is not what we want to have. tcl-cool::object should be the most general superclass of TclCOOL, and tcl-cool::class should be the most general superclass of TclCOOL. Without this redefinition ::tcl-cool::class and ::tcl-cool::object would not have methods (except alloc and dealloc), even if we provide methods for these base classes.

Define the basic class relations:

Since we are bootstrapping the language from a minimal command-set, we will use the setrelation command to define the basic relationships of the freshly defined classes.

First, we define that the superclasses of the newly defined class named ::tcl-cool::class) should be the general meta-class ::oo::class and as well ::tcl-cool::object. Therefore, ::tcl-cool::class will be a meta-class (its instances are classes) and it will inherit all properties of the most general TclCOOL class.

   ::oo::setrelation ::tcl::cool::class superclass {::oo::class ::tcl-cool::object} 

The next two commands define that ::tcl-cool::object and ::tcl-cool::class are instances of ::tcl-cool::class. In other words, the class of e.g. ::tcl-cool::object is ::tcl-cool::class.

   ::oo::setrelation ::tcl-cool::object class ::tcl-cool::class 
   ::oo::setrelation ::tcl-cool::class  class ::tcl-cool::class 

The basic OO-relations of the two basic classes are defined. In a next step of the bootstrapping we attach methods to these classes.

Define methods for classes:

We define 3 methods for ::tcl-cool::class based on the method-set for classes:

Define methods for objects:

Next, we define 3 methods for object (actually ::tcl-cool::object) based on the method-set for objects:

The full definition of TclCOOL is available from [1]

Methods from Extensions

This proposal defines only a small method-set (see above). However, it makes it straightforward to reuse the existing method-set (with maybe different names) without forcing an intermediate interpretation layer, or to load an additional method-set as extension. This additional method-set can be loaded dynamically via package require. The object system developer can provided the methods as Tcl commands in the extension's namespace. These commands can be attached to the objects and classes of the object system to be defined with the command ::oo::alias.

The command alias should not allow extensions to register methods on ::oo::object and ::oo::class. All application object systems should only be allowed to register their methods on the language specific superclasses.

The exact API for methods accessing the dispatcher internals will be specified in another TIP.

The primitive commands (like my, next, self, configure, ...) are provided by the OO namespace, and these can be provided by the extension writers by accessing the dispatcher structure and its stack.

Strengths of the Approach

Sample Implementation

Copyright

This document has been placed in the public domain.


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